Alexander II

Alexander II
(d. 1073)
   Anselm (his baptismal name) was born in Baggio, Italy and he was a pupil of lanfranc at the monastery school in Bec. He was consecrated Bishop of Lucca in 1057 and was elected Pope in 1061. However, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV did not support his candidacy and had an alternative churchman, Cadalus of Parma, elected as Antipope, Honorius II. The schism lasted until Honorius died in 1072, although Alexander II (as he was called) was generally recognised as the true successor to St peter. In his youth, Alexander had been a supporter of the reforming Patarines. As Pope, he tried to put these ideals into practice. He held four synods in Rome. He enforced clerical celibacy, renewed the decrees against simony (the sale of ecclesiastical preferments) and even went so far as to depose the Archbishop of Milan for selling of- fices. He was also not afraid to confront the secular authorities – at the end of his life he excommunicated the Emperor’s advisors. He also condemned the persecution of the Jews in Spain and southern France and he encouraged the Christian kings against the Muslims in Spain. He insisted that new Archbishops should present themselves in person at Rome to receive the pallium, the symbol of their office, and thus he increased the influence of the Papacy. In English history, he is remembered for his support of William of Normandy’s invasion of England in 1066.
   H.K. Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. 6. (1925);
   R. Somerville, Papacy, Councils and Canon Law in the 11th12th Centuries (1990).

Who’s Who in Christianity . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Alexander I. — Alexander hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herrscher namens Alexander 1.1 Alexander I. 1.2 Alexander II. 1.3 Alexander III. 1.4 Alexander IV …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alexander — stammt vom altgriechischen Namen Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros, und bedeutet so viel wie Der die (fremden) Männer abwehrt und Der Beschützer. Die Bedeutung des Namens wird auch in Zusammenhang mit einem Golem in der jüdischen Mythologie gebracht,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alexander — Alexander, Christopher Alexander, islas de Alexander, sir Harold * * * (as used in expressions) William Alexander Abbott Agassiz, Alexander (Emmanuel Rodolphe) Alexander, archipiélago Alexander, Harold (Rupert Leofric George) Alexander, 1 conde… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Alexander VI —     Pope Alexander VI     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Alexander VI     Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503. His parents were Jofre Lançol and Isabella Borja, sister of …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • ALEXANDER° — ALEXANDER°, name of three Russian czars. ALEXANDER I, czar of Russia 1801–25. Alexander I s character and actions were to a large extent shaped by the vicissitudes he experienced in his struggle against napoleon . His ties with Metternich and the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Alexander — puede refererirse a: Alexander Artículos en Wikipedia Todas las páginas que comienzan por «Alexander» Contenido 1 Personajes 2 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alexander V — • Pietro Philarghi, born c. 1339, on the island of Crete (Candia), whence his appellation, Peter of Candia; elected 26 June, 1409; died at Bologna, 3 May, 1410 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Alexander V     …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Alexander — Alexander, AR U.S. town in Arkansas Population (2000): 614 Housing Units (2000): 305 Land area (2000): 0.448323 sq. miles (1.161152 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.448323 sq. miles (1.161152 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Alexander I — may refer to:*Alexander I of Macedon, king of Macedon 495 450 B.C. *Alexander I of Epirus King of Epirus about 342 B.C. *Pope Alexander I, Pope from 106 to 115 *Alexander I of Scotland (c. 1078 1124), King of Scotland *Alexandru I cel Bun… …   Wikipedia

  • ALEXANDER° — ALEXANDER°, name of seven popes. The following are the most significant for Jewish history: ALEXANDER II, reigned 1061–73, consistently followed the policy set by Pope gregory the Great at the end of the sixth century of applying suasion rather… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ALEXANDER — (c. 36–7 B.C.E.), son of herod and mariamne . As Herod s heir presumptive, Alexander was educated in Rome with his younger brother Aristobulus from c. 23–17 B.C.E. On his return to Judea he married Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism